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    “溫水煮青蛙”

    一位女教師做了一個實驗:“溫水煮青蛙”。實驗備受學生喜愛,甚至對某些學生產生了一生的積極影響。而另一方面,卻受到了學校的強烈責備,最后被學校以其他借口開除。對于耳熟能詳的“流行”知識,我們大多數人都缺少質疑的勇氣和驗證的精神,有時因社會風氣,有時因個人智慧。

    “溫水煮青蛙”的著名故事,被很多人引用過。大意是這樣的:將青蛙投入已經煮沸的開水中時,青蛙因受不了突如其來的的高溫刺激立即奮力從開水中跳出來得以成功逃生。

    同樣是水煮青蛙實驗,把青蛙先放入裝著冷水的容器中,然后再加熱。結果就不一樣了。青蛙反倒因為開始時水溫的舒適而在水中悠然自得。直至發現無法忍高溫時,已經心有余而力不足了,被活生生的在熱水中熱死。

    青蛙真的有那么蠢嗎?
    上個世紀九十年代,北京一位女生物老師,組織全班同學做了一次這樣的實驗(我的一位朋友恰好在這個班里):同學們兩三位一組,分配一個容器和一只青蛙,文火加熱,使水溫緩緩升高,以符合“溫水煮青蛙”的基本條件。

    同學們激動而焦急地看著顯示水溫的溫度計和容器中的青蛙。當溫度緩步升到60度時,開始有青蛙跳出。水溫到65度的時候,所有容器中的青蛙一個不落地全部跳出來了。

    女生物老師說:“青蛙在水溫升到60多度后自動跳走,說明它對水溫的本能反應并不因為溫度變化的快慢而存在大的差異。它們沒有蠢到被煮死而不逃離的地步。你們要記住,即便所有人都認同并且經常說的道理,也可能是錯的。那些被社會普遍認定的真理,也可能是謊言。凡事一定要經過親自實驗、調查、思考,不要人云亦云。”

    我那位朋友說,那次實驗改變了他一生,讓他懂得理性思考是何等的重要。

    女生物老師證明了青蛙沒有那么蠢,她卻忽略了,人卻可以蠢到不可思議的程度。學校對她組織的“溫水煮青蛙”實驗表示了極大的憤怒,因為,這種實驗并非教學中安排的內容,與學生的分數沒有任何關系。老師據理力爭,反而埋下更大隱患,后來學校找了其他借口,把她給辭退了。

    那位朋友說,他從此再也沒有見過這位可敬的老師,他曾經去打聽過,也沒有結果。

    讓事實說話
    這是我聽到的與眾不同的“溫水煮青蛙”的故事。我沒有去做過類似的實驗,但那位朋友講起此事的眼神,讓我相信,他曾經被這個實驗震撼,并被老師的話打動。

    如果我們的教育環境,贊賞并鼓勵這位老師的教學方式,帶出來的孩子,將來該是何等的優秀?孩子們那么喜歡和認同她的教學方式,卻不能改變她被逐出校園的命運。

    后來,我無意中與一位外國朋友談起此事,問他對“溫水煮青蛙”怎么看?他聳聳肩,抱歉說從未聽說過這個原理,但說會請教做過實驗的專家。哦,原來在我們這里幾乎人盡皆知的“溫水煮青蛙”故事,并非全球流行。

    “溫水煮青蛙”的實驗不難做,但所有的人寧肯直接引用“溫水煮青蛙”的典故去論證從量變到質變的順理成章,也不愿意去做任何一點質疑,包括我自己,至少在聽到這個故事以前,我和人們一起認為,青蛙就是那么蠢。

    “溫水煮青蛙”的后續故事讓我思索了很久。這何嘗不是我們這個社會的弊端呢?謊言重復一千遍,所有的人都認為謊言是真理,而與謊言不一樣的說法就是荒謬絕倫。或者,幾個人湊到一起,為某個說法到底是真理還是謊言論戰得面紅耳赤,卻沒有一個人去實驗,讓事實說話。人們覺得做實驗是浪費時間,是一種愚蠢的行為,而無聊地無休止地爭論卻是一種享受。

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